Best guide for building a home or a work wifi network

Big Guide: What do we need to build a home or corporate network

Build a small home or office network may not be such a science as it might seem at first glance. We advise you what equipment you to come in handy.

Deploy your home or small business network is now much easier than a decade ago. Manufacturers are trying to setup and generally all the work with network elements as easy as possible and bring a broad customer groups. But the important thing is to know what equipment we need for our network.

Router is the cornerstone of the network

The basis of the home (or small business) network router or router. Router most often connected via WAN port to a modem, which we receive Internet signal (which usually supplies directly ISP). So it can redistribute it to their own networks just need a router. We also meet with models with built-in modem, which is primarily used for ADSL and VDSL standards, ie for connection via landline.

Today routers sold almost exclusively in the variant of Wi-Fi with IP 192.168.ll – thus operate simultaneously as an access point for all clients in the wireless network. Therefore no longer need to buy any additional equipment for distributing wireless signals.

Most routers is equipped as standard with four network connectors for LAN connections classical computers, televisions or other electronics via network cables. There are, but also models that have only one power connector, usually it is a very compact device that relies on the ability to connect via Wi-Fi. Before buying it is so helpful to think about what and how we connect.

The cheapest routers offer after only cable network speed of 100 Mbit / s. While this is sufficient for Internet access, but for example, send data or watching videos on the network have this speed is insufficient. More expensive routers with the price of CZK 800 and are often equipped with a gigabit network port (labeled 10/100/1000 Mbps). The speed standard course must also support other components, including computer’s network card.

It depends on the speed, as well as on the band

Individual routers from each often vary also the speed. For standard can now be considered 802.11n – just the letter “n” indicates that the router will be offered within a wireless network speeds of up to 300 Mbit / s. On older and slower standards “b” and “g” have a chance to bump into practice only second-hand menus.

Increasingly, however, we meet with the latest 802.11ac standard, which is also sometimes referred to as Gigabit Wi-Fi or 5G Wi-Fi. It moves the wireless data transfer, to the theoretical speed of 1.3 Gbit / s. In addition to higher transmission speeds, we can also look forward to a better distribution and less interference. While a year ago was the prerogative of technology enthusiasts, today a standard 802.11ac routers found its way into ordinary households.

If the groove on the streaming Full HD video, you have a few home computers and your router will be installed in areas without high-density wireless networks still are very well served by simpler wireless routers operating in the 2.4 GHz band. 2.4GHz routers on the market a large number of many price categories – from a few hundred to several thousand. So just depends on your requirements for equipment, functionality and speed.

If you need wireless transmission of high-definition video, access to network storage or to share printers with multiple users, it will be a classic single-band router bit tight. Far better will serve a dual-band router with support for 5 GHz frequency, which will offer not only a higher speed, but also generally better equipment. The standard IP should be 192.168.ll.

Literally necessity are then 5GHz routers in densely populated areas with large concentrations of wireless networks. Classic 2.4GHz band are often overcrowded, the network will cancel each other out and slow down. While you always have the option to manually scan channels and look for those little busy, but sometimes that does not work. In the 5GHz band, the situation is much better, it is not nearly as busy. In practice there and you get to twice the speed of 2.4 GHz frequency.

So that it was not so rosy, 5GHz routers also have its drawbacks. While they are much faster, but they also have low permeability signal – it can happen that wherever you are at your 2.4GHz router without problems caught signal with 5GHz nothing. However, typically prefab homes available for 3 + 1 5GHz routers are built as a rule, do not signal transmission within the housing unit is no problem.

It is fitting to mention that the vast majority of 5GHz routers is called. Dual band. This means that manage to operate in the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. Manufacturers often indicate the maximum network throughput by combining both of these bands. Connect your computer or laptop using the same technology it is possible to easily both bands simultaneously, one can then proceed such routine tasks (office work, etc.), And the second most demanding (video, online games, etc.).

Antennas also determine the quality of transmission

The speed (quality), wireless network and reach decisions also antennas. These can be either built-in (ie do not be fooled by photographs that do not show visible) or external. External have the advantage that they can be easily replaced with a more powerful model – but it is not a rule cheaper routers also have an external antenna not removable. The quality coverage to a certain extent determined by the number of antennas – basic routers usually have one antenna, the better still three or four.

In addition to the number of antennas (more is better) is worth keeping track of their profit is measured in units of dBi. That’s profitability to some extent determines how far the wireless signal reaches. The cheapest routers still encounter 3dBi antennas, advanced models have five or more dBi. But antenna gain is closely related to its directionality. In practice this means that with an antenna with a higher gain (dBi higher value) will result in better coverage, although some areas, but in the immediate vicinity of the router income may be paradoxically worse.

Some routers also have a nifty feature called beamforming. Thanks to her, can this basic building block of a home or corporate network signal is directed to the connected devices. In practice this works is that you connect the device near your router and that you then its “movement” supervises and directs the signal to him. As a result you will achieve calm and a few meters better coverage.

Few ports? A switch can help

As we have already mentioned above, most routers is equipped with four network connectors. But what to do when they need more? Assistance may be called. Switch, which is used for further distribution network ports. It works on a similar principle as a splitter in the drawer, just connect to the router and switch that automatically divorces signal to all ports.

These switches cheapest are sold in less than CZK 200, typically have five or eight ports. You can come across but also more sophisticated solutions that there are still several dozen – but these are logically suited for use in large companies. The cost of the switch decides also its speed as well as in routers distinguish between 100 Mbit / s and 1000 Mbit / s.

The question then becomes, what is the difference between switches and routers? Although appearance may be similar, the differences are large. Switch is able to connect the dots only computers within a local network, while router in addition to linking individual computers within a local network are also a home or corporate network connects to the Internet. This process is called routing. If you would like to place the router used for Internet distribution switch, it will not work network.

When do you do not need cables

Manufacturers also think the situation when the house or apartment does not want to pull network cables. Connect your computer will still be using the AC adapter for power lines (Power Line Adapters). Their big advantage is easy to install – simply plug the two adapters into outlets to bring one internet via LAN interface adapters are no longer automatically connect.

Adapters are also disadvantages – will occupy the drawer (if not continuous) and may not always be as reliable and fast as conventional network cables. Problem in data transmission can do both poor wiring, and appliances with high power consumption.

Laptops now have built-in wireless adapters as standard, but to connect just as easily be a Wi-Fi network (192.168.ll) and desktop PCs. Just for them to buy a USB adapter, which will also serve the elderly laptops to standard Wi-Fi still do not have. For older laptops may also serve ExpressCard or PCMCIA card with a network adapter.



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